Day 2 :
Time : 09:30-10:10
Frederic J Deschamps is a Medical Occupational Doctor since 1990. He is a Professor of Medicine since 2002. He manages Department of Occupational Diseases at the University Hospital of Reims. He is the Director of the Department of Occupational Health. His main topic concerns the assessment of diseases in relationship with low level toxic during long periods. He is mainly interested in: occupational health and toxicology.
The new industrial world induces a lot of innovative processes. Moreover the emerging works and jobs are linked to nanoparticles and other new toxic compounds used for their industrial properties. But, it is also important to pay attention to the old metals as mercury, lead, inducing always, at the beginning of this new century, occupational diseases, scattered in a lot of small factories. The goal is to present an up-to-date concerning the occupational and environmental diseases induced mainly or partly by an increased large distribution of toxic products. It seems important to take into account the main topics concerning the occupational advances, as telemedicine used by few occupational health departments. The assessment of jobs exposed to carcinogenic risks and their distribution is necessary to prevent cancers initiation. Actually old exposures are inducing "new occupational problems" as obstructive pulmonary diseases, not only associated with tobacco consumption. It is essential to promote the follow up ( ex: Aluminium exposure) which could underline the possible efficiency of an architectural improvement, on the health of workers. Finally, the assessment of environmental or occupational metals exposures ( cobalt, thorium ) are necessary and could reveal particular, not very well known uses.
I Beritashvili Center of Experimental Biomedicine, Georgia
Merab G Tsagareli graduated from Tbilisi State University, Georgia (1977) and completed his PhD from Lomonosov State University of Moscow, Russia (1982) and then Postdoctoral studies from Serbsky National Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow, Russia (1985-1990). He is the Director of the Pain and Analgesia Laboratory at Ivane Beritashvili Center for Experimental Biomedicine in Tbilisi, Georgia. His research focuses on the behavioral studies of TRP channels and analgesic and tolerance effects of NSAIDs in relation with the descending pain modulation system. He has published more than 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
The most important signaling mechanism for imminent harm is the pain system to minimize tissue damage. This system illustrates the complex process by which the brain constructs the sensory and emotional sensation of pain. The mainstay of mild pain therapy remains drugs that have been around for decades, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Over the past decade, we have intensively studied the effects of antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs injected intraperitoneally or microinjected into pain-matrix structures like as the central nucleus amygdala, the periaqueductal grey matter, the dorsal hippocampus, the anterior cingulate and the rostral insular cortices. In this presentation, we review that repeated microinjections of NSAIDs like as analgin, clodifen, ketorolac and xefocam into above mentioned structures of rats over a 4-5 days period resulted in progressively less antinociception compared to the vehicle control, testing in the battery of behavioral tests (the tail-flick, hot plate, thermal and mechanical withdrawal). Hence, tolerance develops to these drugs and cross-tolerance to morphine. These findings strongly support the suggestion of endogenous opioid system involvement in NSAIDs antinociception. Pre-treatment with an opioid antagonist naloxone completely prevented, as well as post-treatment with naloxone abolished, the analgesic effects of these non-opioid drugs in all behavioral assays. These findings support the notion that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory circuits.