Jiseon Kim is a graduate student with major in Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics at The Catholic University of Korea.
Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the world. Dietary supplements include amino acids, botanicals, herbals, vitamins and other products has accelerated research on herb-drug interactions with increasing the amount of consumption spending for healthy supplies. Therefore, co-administrations will have potentially dangerous side effects as well as herb-drug interactions; thus the regulating activity of co-administered dietary supplements has been shown to result in pronounced increase or decrease in the blood levels of the affected drugs. In addition to the potential for hepatotoxicity, some of herbal and dietary supplements may have interactions with certain prescription medications by various mechanisms leading to adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of commonly used herbal and dietary supplements on 10 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme activities and evaluate their herb-drug interaction potential due to UGT inhibition. Th e extracts screened were artichoke, ashwagandha, burdock root, butcher’s broom, cascara sagrada, fennel seed, hawthorn, horse chestnut, horsetail, maitake mushroom extract, reishi and stinging nettle. The inhibitory effects of 12 herbal and dietary supplements on UGTs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography by measuring the remaining activities with a probe substrate using recombinant human UGT isoforms and human liver microsomes in the absence or presence of extracts. Our data suggests that 12 herbs are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safety use of herb.
Mustafa Canli has completed his PhD from Glasgow University, UK and Post-doctoral studies from Ghent University, Belgium. He is a Full Time Professor in Department of Biology, Cukurova University, Turkey. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and has attended many international congresses concerning ecotoxicology.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have potential to cause adverse effects on organ, tissue and cells due to their unusual physicochemical properties, because of their physical and chemical characteristics. NPs are being used increasingly in nanotechnology and data regarding their toxicities to animals are unsatisfactory. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), one of the most widely used nanoparticle, was administered to mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) via oral gavage (0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg b.w./day) for 14 days. Then, the levels of 19 serum biomarkers (glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, triglycerides, bilirubin, protein, ALP, ALT, AST, cortisol, T3, T4, estradiol, prolactin, IgG, IgM, total oxidant, total antioxidant) belonging to different metabolic systems and the activities of osmoregulation enzymes (Na,K-ATPase, Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase) in the erythrocyte were measured. TiO2 nanoparticles altered significantly all ATPase activities in the erythrocyte, except the lowest dose. Na,K-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte decreased following TiO2 exposures (up to 80%), but the activities of Ca-ATPase (up to 274%) and Mg-ATPase (up to 290%) increased. TiO2 nanoparticles increased significantly the levels of all the liver enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST) in the serum (up to 84%). However, the other serum parameters did not change significantly following TiO2 administration, except bilirubin levels (81% increase). The present study demonstrated that oral administration of TiO2 mostly affected the liver parameters in the serum and all ATPases in the erythrocyte. This study suggests carrying out further research to enlighten better the environmental fate of nanoparticles.